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Abstract

ENTOMOCIDAL EFFICACY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF SOURSOP (ANNONA MURICATA) SEEDS AGAINST BRUCHID WEEVILS OF STORED VIGNA SUBTERRANEAN L. VERC. IN NIGERIA

*Ubi Godwin Michael, Ogbonna Nneka Constance, Amaefule Comfort Chioma and Anietie Rosemary Bassey

ABSTRACT

Experiment was conducted in 2016/2017 to evaluate the insecticidal properties of Sour-sop fruit seed extracts on the mortality of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) bean weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus in the Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, Nigeria. One hundred bruchid weevils destroying stored Bambara groundnut seeds were counted and introduced into perforated plastic containers containing fifty uninfected and untreated Bambara groundnut seeds. Three (3) g each of cotton wool was soaked differently in 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% prepared concentrations of ethanol and aqueous extracts of sour-sop seeds and placed inside each of the plastics containing 100 weevils with 50 grains each. The experimental plastics containers were kept in the store under normal room temperature and pressure and observed for mortality and fecundity after 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 days interval respectively. Five (5) sour-sop seeds were dried, crushed and taken to laboratory for phytochemical analysis using ethanol and aqueous extractants with standard procedures of the Association of Official Analytical Chemist, 2006. The results showed that more of the phytochemical compounds were released when ethanol was used as the extracting solvent suggesting that the active compounds dissolved more in ethanol solvent than in the aqueous solvent. The results further showed that tannins and phenolic compounds were the most abundant in the sour-sop seeds when ethanol extractant was used. Results of insecticidal properties of ethanol and aqueous seed extract showed 100% mortality of weevils treated with 40% and 50% of the ethanolic seed extract after 2 days of storage. In the same time duration, 50 and 5 insects died respectively when treated with 30% and 20% ethanol seed extract of sour-sop. No mortality was recorded for the control and for weevils treated with 10% ethanolic seed extract of Soursop at this time interval. The results further revealed that after 8 days of treatment application and grain storage, 100% mortality was recorded for the weevils treated with 50% ethanol seed extract of sour-sop. It was revealed from the study that 40% ethanol seed extract of sour-sop was the effective minimum inhibitory concentrated needed to control the bruchid weevils against stored grains. The weevil fecundity was highly inhibited at all the concentrations except in the control experiment were no extract was applied. The study thus recommended that 40% ethanolic extract of soursop seeds can be used as an alternative to synthetic chemicals for controlling Bambara groundnut seeds weevils in storage.

Keywords: Weevil mortality, ethanol and aqueous extracts, Annona muricata seeds, phytochemical screening, Bambara groundnut.


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