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Abstract

PREVALENCE AND MICROBIAL DYNAMICS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN CALABAR, CROSS RIVER STATE

J. N. Iheanacho*, S. P. Antai and D. R. Tiku

ABSTRACT

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections that occur both in the community and healthcare setting. This study surveyed the prevalence, distribution and antibiogram profile of uropathogens isolated from UTIs among in- and out- patients attending General hospital, Calabar by determining the total count bacterial counts of the patients, the distribution of significant bacteriuria according to age groups (5 – 20, 21 – 35, 36 – 50, 51 – 65 years), prevalence rate of UTI according to sex, the etiological agents and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. A total of 200 freshly voided midstream urine samples were collected into sterile plastic screw capped universal containers and transported to the laboratory for analysis. All positive samples with pyuria were aseptically cultured by standard methods on sterile Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) agar and MacConkey agar plates and incubated appropriately. Results showed that of the 200 samples screened, 49% were sterile, 32% were insignificant (<105 cfu/ml) while 19% had significant bacteriuria. Of the 115 females, 27 (23.5%) came up with positive cultures while 11 (12.9%) of the 85 males were positive. The highest rate of infection was recorded in the age group 21 – 35 and the least was recorded in patients in the age group 51 – 65. There was significant difference in the distribution of significant bacteriuria according to age groups at P < 0.05. A total of 85 bacterial species was isolated in this study with Escherichia coli (30.6%) being the commonest etiologic agent followed by, Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.6%), Proteus mirabilis (14.1%), coagulase negative Staphylococci (11.8%), Pseudomonas (9.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (9.4%) and Enterococcus faecalis (7.1%). The findings of this study recorded a prevalence rate of 19% with females being more at risk. The most effective antibiotic for treating E. coli and other uropathogens in this study were Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin. Regular monitoring is necessary to establish reliable information about susceptibility pattern of urinary pathogens for optimal empirical therapy for patients with UTI. It is therefore recommended that antibiotic selection for treatment of UTI should be based on local etiology of UTI and antibiogram rather than on global guidelines.

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