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Abstract

ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY AND ITS PROSPECTIVE MECHANISM OF ACTION ON NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS USING CRUDE EXTRACT OF FOUR MEDICINAL PLANTS

*Muhammad Danish Mehmood, Ejaz Rafique, Huma Anwar, Sana Noreen, Mehreen Gul and Sajad Hussain

ABSTRACT

Viral problems have been in focused of the scientists due to their high metabolic rate, drug resistance and unique nature of pathological mechanism. The failure of novel synthetic allopathic antiviral drugs impels the scientists to investigate other sources of alternative antiviral agents. Herbal extracts has various inhibitory effects against avian viruses particularly Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The current study was under taken to evaluate in-vitro NDV potential of crude extracts of different medicinal plants by means of Haemagglutination (HA) titer in vero cell line culture. To study the potential NDV activity, Vero cell line were treated with different doses (25μl, 50μl, 75μl and 100μl) of solvent free crude extracts of G. glabra, P. emblica, A. sativum and A. indica and interacted with 1000 TCID50 of the lasota virus during infection at different time periods. Minimum dose (25μg/ml) of crude ethanolic extract of A. indica when inoculated on to vero cell line before NDV exposure showed significantly higher (48 HA titer) anti-NDV response as compare to A. sativum (64 HA), but significantly lower than P. emblica (20 HA titer). Similarly, minimum dose (25μg/ml) of crude ethanolic extract of P. emblica after one hour post NDV exposure showed significantly higher (Mean NDV HA Titer 24) anti-NDV response as compare to A. indica (48 HA Titer) and glycyrrhiza, but similar to A. sativum (48 HA). Whereas, maximum dose (100μg/ml) of P. emblica showed significantly similar antiviral (3HA) response on vero cell infected NDV when treated one hour before with A. indica, A. sativum (3 HA), but significantly higher than G. glabra (128 HA) in terms of mean HA titer. Maximum tested dose (100μg/ml) of P. emblica post one hour NDV exposure showed significantly similar antiviral (2.5 HA) response on vero cell to A. indica (6HA) and A. sativum (4 HA), but significantly higher than G. glabra (192). However, either of the selected plants did not show any cell toxicity by means of cytopathic effect (CPE) and Haemagglutination activity alone or synergistically even at 100μg/ml. It is evaluated that simultaneous treatment (25μg/ml) with crude extract of A. sativum to expose NDV (EID50=105) in 90% saturated vero cell line showed substianal antiNDV activity.

Keywords: Antiviral activity, Herbal extracts, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Phyllanthus emblica, Allium sativum, Azadirchata indica.


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