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Abstract

ORAL ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES ON ACTION BITTERS IN ALBINO RATS

Abiodun I. K.*, Onwusonye J. C., Uzomba N. I., Amaralam E. C., Nkwugo E. M., Abiodun M. O.

ABSTRACT

In this work, the oral acute toxicity profile of Action bitters in albino rats was studied. The studies were conducted in two phases, phase one (1) and phase two (2). A total number of twenty one (21) albino rats were used. These were randomly distributed into seven groups. Group one (1) to four were used in phase 1 while group five (5) to seven (7) were used in phase two. In phase 1 study, the first group were administered with distilled water and used as control while groups two to four were treated with 2, 4, and 6 ml/kg b. w of the Action bitters respectively. All animals were observed for the first twenty four hours for toxicity signs and mortality. From the result obtained, the doses of the action bitters were increased to 12, 16 and 20 ml/kg b. w in phase 2. At the end of 24 hours, toxicity and mortality were also recorded. All animals were observed for 72 hours at the end of which they were sacrificed. Blood samples were taken for the determination of haemoglobin (Hb) level and Packed cell volume (PCV). Results showed that at maximum dose, 20ml/kg b. w (phase 2), only shivering and paw licking were observed without death occurring. There were also slight changes in body weight of the animals. Results of the haematological analysis revealed significant reduction (P<0.05) in both Hb and PCV. It was thus concluded that the median lethal dose (LD50) of action bitters in albino rats lies within a range above 20ml/kg b. w.

Keywords: Acute toxicity, Action bitters, Haemoglobin, lethal dose.


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