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Abstract

HYDROMETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM IMPROVES VISUO-SPATIAL LEARNING AND MEMORY IN MICE

Folawiyo Moshood Abiola*, Ayaraekpe Elizabeth Besong, Famurewa Ademola Clement, Okorocha Albert Egwu, Ajayi Ayodeji Folorunsho and Egwu Eni Ogbonnia

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the effect of hydromethanolic leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (HMOG) on visuo-spatial learning and memory in mice. Mice were randomly assigned into four groups of 6 mice each. Group 1 received distilled water normal control; group 2 received 10 mg/kg body weight of Gingko biloba (standard drug); while groups 3 and 4 received 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively, for 21 consecutive days. The acute oral toxicity (LD50) study and qualitative phytochemical screening were carried out. The body weight of mice was monitored and behavioural indices such as swim latencies, quadrant durations and annulus crossings (annulus acquisition and reversal frequency) were measured using Morris water maze. The result of LD50 of the extract was above 5000 mg/kg body weight of mice and qualitative phytochemical result indicates the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides and tannins. The results also showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in body weight of the treated groups when compared with the control. Behavioural indices showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in swim latency (visible platform day) and a significant increase in retention quadrant in mice treated with 400 mg/kg of extract when compared with the standard drug. This study shows that the extract may improve visuo-spatial learning and memory abilities and this beneficial health effect may be attributed to the phytochemicals in the extract.

Keywords: Ocimum gratissimum; Gingko biloba; Morris water maze; behavioural; phytochemicals.


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