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Abstract

ANTI - INFLAMMATORY PROPERTY OF AMUKKARA CHOORNAM A POLY HERBAL PREPARATION: AN IN - VITRO STUDY

M. Amala*, R. Vinodini, A. M. Amala Hazel, M. Meenakshi Sundaram and V. Banumathi

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is a normal protective response to tissue injury and it involves a complex array of enzyme activation, mediator release, fluid extravasations, cell migration, tissue breakdown and repair (Vane et al., 1995). It is a complex process, which is frequently associated with pain and involves occurrences such as increase in vascular permeability, increase of protein denaturation and membrane alterations (Umapathy et al., 2010). Harmful stimuli including pathogens, irritants or damaged cells initiate response of vascular tissue as inflammation. Inflammation is a protective attempt by the organism to remove injurious stimuli as well as initiation of the healing process for the tissue (Denko.1992). However, if inflammation is not treated it leads to onset of diseases like vasomotor rhinorrhoea, rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis (Henson et al., 1989). In appreciating the inflammatory process, it is important to understand the role of chemical mediators. These are substances that tend to direct the inflammatory response. These inflammatory mediators come from plasma proteins or cells including mast cells, platelets, neutrophils and monocytes. They are triggered by bacterial products or host proteins. Chemical mediators bind to specific receptors. Vascular permeability, neutrophil chemotaxis, stimulate smooth muscle contraction, have direct enzymatic activity which induce pain or mediate oxidative damage. Most mediators are short - lived but cause harmful effects. Examples of chemical mediators include vasoactive amines (histamine, serotonin), arachidonic acids (prostaglandins, leukotrienes) and cytokines (tumour necrosis factor and interleukin -1) Smith et al., (2004). It is believed that current drugs available such as opiods and non –steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are not useful in all cases of inflammatory disorders, because of their side effects and potency (Ahmadiani et al., 1998). As a result, a search for other alternatives seems necessary and beneficial. Hence the study of plants that have been used traditionally for curing inflammation needs to be analysed.

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