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Abstract

RESISTANT BACTERIAL ISOLATES AMONG HIV-SEROPOSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN IN AKURE METROPOLIS, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA

Ako-Nai Kwashie Ajibade*, Makun Catherine Ifeoluwa and Omo-Omorodion Blessing Itohan

ABSTRACT

HIV serostatus of pregnant patients recruited was determined by HIV- 1/2 strip and confirmed by Abbott enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Quantification of CD4 and viral load for each patient was done using flow cytometry and COBASĀ® AmpliPrepTaqMan HIV-1 Qual test version 3.2 series 3.3, respectively at risk of Mother-to-child transmission, a major killer of the neonate early in life. Some studies have reported bacterial isolates in high vaginal swab (HVS) of HIV pregnant that are resistant to antimicrobials. Our study characterised these bacterial isolates between May 2016-November 2016 at the antenatal clinics of the State Specialist hospital in Akure metropolis, South-western Nigeria. Methods: Thirty- five (35) gram negative bacterial isolates were randomly selected from cultured high vaginal swabs of HIV seropositive pregnant women. Samples were collected using a sterile cotton-tipped applicator and characterised using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotics susceptibility tests of each isolate was analysed employing the Kirby-Bauer method while minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was carried out using the broth microdilution method. Extracellular enzymes were also evaluated using standard microbiological techniques. Results: All bacterial isolates tested displayed high antibiotic resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin. However, 94.3% of the isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. MIC concentration of the antibiotics employed ranged from 0.125mg/mL-32mg/mL underscoring the effectiveness of these antimicrobials. The results also showed exudation of varying degree of extracellular enzymes activities; on the contrary none of the isolates exhibited DNase activity. Conclusion: Resistant bacteria isolates to commonly employed antimicrobials were cultured from HVS of pregnant mothers that could compromise their health. The observation could depress already immunocompromised such HIV patients thus exposing them to opportunists infections.

Keywords: HIV, Pathogenic bacteria, antimicrobials, extracellular enzymes, HVS.


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