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Abstract

TRACE ELEMENTS CONCENTRATIONS IN TURKEY SPECIES OF WILD GROWING EDIBLE MUSHROOMS: A REVIEW

Mansor Sileman Mustafa Bofaris*, Kutaiba Ibrahin Alzand, Sabri Ünal, Mertcan Karadeniz and Mansour S. M. Bartouh

ABSTRACT

Turkey has great mushroom-producing potential due to environmental conditions. It is a popular natural food in Turkey. This article review presents scientific information on trace element (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni). The studies included 17 species which collected from several regions in Turkey. The lowest Cu levels obtained was in Rhizopogon roseolus (2.19 ug/g) and, the highest level of Cu was in Melanoleuca stridula as 75.40 mg/kg dw). The lowest Cd contents was 0.024 μg/g in Morchella costata, and the highest concentration of Cd in reviews was found in Hydnum repandum (7.45-0.124 mg / kg). The zinc content was found vary from 9.74 mg/kg in Craterellus cornucopioides to 354.0 mg/kg in Helvella leucopus. Minimum and maximum levels of Pb were measured as 0.9 mg/kg and 9.2 mg/kg dry matter in Morchella esculenta and Lactarius deliciosus. The highest concentration of Mn in the studied mushrooms was found in 197 mg/kg Melanoleuca stridula, whereas the lowest manganese content was 0.83 μg/g in Morchella costata. The highest and the lowest levels of Iron were found in Rhizopogon roseolus and Cantharellus cibarius. The highest chromium content (22.7 mg/g d.w.) was found in Armillaria mellea, whereas the lowest chromium content (0.074 mg/g d.w.) was found in Rhizopogon roseolus. Armillaria mellea and Rhizopogon roseolus had the minimum and maximum Ni concentrations at 0.04 ug/g and 17.44 mg / kg respectively. The different results due to soil properties, species of mushroom, mushroom structure and morphological type, geographical origins , environmental conditions, method analysis used, mushroom structure and morphological type. The purpose of reviews is to evaluate the level of toxic elements (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) and essential elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe) in some species of mushrooms from Turkey. These scientific data are useful in the fields mushroom science, food science and health science.

Keywords: Trace elements; Wild Mushrooms: Turkey.


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