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Abstract

RADIOGRAPHIC CONTRAST MEDIA INDUCED NEPHROPATHY IN PCI: A REVIEW

Bithiah Ben, Anjana P. Krishnan*, Aiswarya Thomas and Kiron S. S.

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is one of the two coronary revascularization techniques which are in use today for the treatment of coronary heart disease, the other one is coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). PCI is a non surgical procedure for the revascularization of the coronary artery using a balloon catheter.[1] In India an exponential increase is seen in the rate of coronary interventions each year and the study reports shows that a total of 152332 PCI were done per year.[2] Various types of contrast-medias have been developed for use in PCI.[3] The main side effect associated is contrast induced nephropathy (CIN). In the general population the estimated incidence of contrast induced nephropathy was found to be 1-6% but in some patient sub-groups the risk may be as high as 50%. Even a small increase in serum creatinine level results in prolonged hospital stay, excess cost and dialysis is required for less than 1% patients.[4] Because of the high prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) seen in patients undergoing PCI, defining strategies to minimize the risk of AKI and to improve the safety and efficacy of the procedure is beneficial.[5]

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