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Abstract

ASSESSMENT OF BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS AND OUTCOME OF LEAD POISONING AMONG A SAMPLE IN BAQUBAH CITY.

Loay M. M. Altaay*, Ass. Prof. Suhair M. Hasson and Dr. Ali Y. Majid

ABSTRACT

Background: Lead poisoning and occupational lead exposure remains a serious problem despite awareness of its adverse health effects in the world. The present study aimed to compute lead concentration and risk factors in adults (traffic policemen, taxi drivers and generators workers), to evaluate the effect of exposure to environmental lead among study samples, and to signify the relationship between the blood lead levels and among study sample, some socio-demographic characteristics of subject such as (age, residency, duration of work), and between blood lead levels and general information such as(smoking). Comparison between cases and controls in some variables such as (protective measures and past medical history). Subject and methods: A case control study has been designed for a sample of subjects consists of (264) adult men, aged between (20-60) years divided into two groups, (132) in each group. The first group represent the adults men (cases group), including traffic policemen, taxi drivers and generators workers, while the second group represent the controls group which included volunteered healthy adults men. The study has been conducted in Baqubah City from 1st December 2016 to the end of 30th June 2017. Data were collected using questionnaire throughout interview technique for all adult men. Blood lead level was measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: The findings revealed that the higher mean blood lead levels in cases (generators workers) 28.43 μg/dl and lower in traffic policeman 20.43μg/dl and the lowest in taxi driver 19.45μg/dl. Mean of blood lead levels in controls 12.35μg/dl, also the results revealed that there is a significant difference between Mean blood lead levels and study samples (cases and controls), each groups of cases (generator workers, taxi drivers, traffic policeman), age, duration of work and smoking, the comparison between cases and controls in (protective measures, and past medical history). The study demonstrated variation between blood lead levels and residency. There was also a different variation in the comparison between the cases and controls group in some variable in different distributions. Conclusions and Recommendation: The increase in the lead in the air and environment of Baqubah City is due to the presence of lead in petroleum in addition to its other uses which led to air and environment pollution which reflected its effect on the occupations. The study recommended that health authorities tighten supervision and provide minimum occupational safety measures, improving procedures of health risk assessment; removing lead from petrol as soon as is practicable, educational programs of heavy metals and their effects, especially lead. Oblige occupations, especially generators workers, traffic police and taxi drivers, to use protective mask to protect their respiratory system and minimize inhalation of air pollution by lead during work and conduct a comprehensive study of Iraq to determine the natural value of lead that can be adopted as a real value for health and occupational safety in Iraq.

Keywords: Blood Lead Levels, Lead Poisoning, Baqubah City, Iraq.


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