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Abstract

HYDRO GEOCHEMISTRY AND GROUND WATER QUALITY EVALUATION OF PULWAMA AND SHOPIAN KASHMIR

Pawan Kumar*, Chandra Mohan Rajoriya, Syed Waseem Shafi and Bhanwar Lal Jat

ABSTRACT

The chemical quality of groundwater of district pulwama and shopian, Jammu and Kashmir was assessed for its suitability for drinking and purposes. A total of 19 water samples were collected from bore well dug wells and spring. The water samples were analyzed for different physico-chemical properties, e.g., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total harness (11-1), total alkalinity (TA), calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulphate, and chloride concentrations. Based on these analyses, parameters like parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, % sodium, residual sodium carbonate, potential salinity, Kelley's ratio and magnesium ratio, index of Base Exchange and Gibb's's ratio, magnesium hazard and exchangeable sodium ratio were calculated. In the study area all the physico-chemical parameters were within maximum permissible limit prescribed by WHO for drinking water quality. As for as the suitability of water for irrigation is concerned all the parameters, suggest that majority of the samples (more than 90%) are desirable for most of the crops and soils. However the magnesium hazard is more than 50% for all the samples which have adverse effects on the soils and crop yield. According to Gibbs ratio all the samples from the study area fall in the rock dominance area suggesting the rock water interaction is responsible for chemistry of groundwater. Also as per the (Na Vs.1-HCO3) and (Ca+ Mg vs. SO4+HCO3) scatter diagrams suggest that silicate and is prominent in the study area. Piper plot suggest that three types of water are present in the study area.

Keywords: TDS, TH, TA, Groundwater, EC.


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