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Abstract

VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA - DIAGNOSIS AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS: A REVIEW

Pooja Sadasivan, Lincy George* and K. Krishnakumar

ABSTRACT

Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) have higher mortality rates and longer ICU and hospital stays compared to other nosocomial infections. Development of VAP is by the aspiration of colonized pathogenic microorganisms on the oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract. Intubation and the duration of mechanical ventilation are other risk factors for VAP. Diagnosis of VAP remains very difficult and the studies showed the importance of early initiation of appropriate antibiotic for prognosis. The lack of a reference standard for the microbiological diagnosis of VAP has generated controversy over the use of diagnostic algorithms. Eventhough, microbiological analysis of sputum or tracheal aspirates obtained via the endotracheal tube adds little to diagnostic accuracy sometimes it may be misleading. This review article highlights on the diagnosis and prevention strategies in critically ill patients where it contributes an important problem in critically ill patients and are associated with high mortality. So prevention of such infections is very important to be considered. This review article focused on ventilator associated pneumonia - diagnosis and prevention strategies in critically ill patients.

Keywords: Ventilator associated pneumonia, Intensive care unit.


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