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Abstract

INFLUENCE OF PROBIOTICS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF AQUACULTURE – A REVIEW

Dr. S. Janardana Reddy*, D. Vineela and B. Kiran Kumar

ABSTRACT

Aquaculture has become an important economic activity in many countries. In large-scale production facilities, where aquatic animals are exposed to stressful conditions, problems related to diseases and deterioration of environmental conditions often occur and result in serious economic losses. Probiotic use in Aquaculture is increasing as producers attempt to improve pond soil and water quality, enhance survival and improve the growth of cultured species. The probiotics which are used as biological control agents in aquaculture belong to the Lactic acid bacteria, Bacillus and Vibrio are used as Probiotic bacteria. Probiotics, such as Bacillus spp. can be introduced into the culture environment to control and compete with pathogenic bacteria as well as to promote the growth of the cultured organisms. In addition, Bacillus spp. are nonpathogenic and non-toxic microorganisms without undesirable side-effects when administered to aquatic organisms. Probiotics can help to boost the immune system and ward off inflammatory responses in the gut. Application of Bacillus subtilis as probiotic has brought very promising results for shrimp aquaculture. This bacterium is a non-pathogenic Gram positive spore-forming which has been used to improve the growth performance and also shrimp health and disease management. The maintenance of good water quality is essential for optimum growth and survival of shrimps. The levels of physical, chemical and biological parameters control the quality of pond waters. The level of metabolites in pond water can have an adverse effect on the growth. Good water quality is characterized by adequate oxygen and limited level of metabolites. Recently, more studies on probiotics including Bacillus subtilis have concentrated its role in digestion, absorption, growth, nonspecific immunity, and pathogen resistance in aquatic animals.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Probiotics, Growth, Development, Culture, Gram positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis.


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