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R. Gowri, T. Abarna, K. Durgadevi and V. Ramamurthy*


Alcohol abuse is a major public health problem in Tamil Nadu. In comparison to national average of alcohol consumption (21%), the average value for Tamil Nadu is higher (69%). Medically diagnosed alcoholics can be differentiated reliably from non-alcoholics using clinically laboratory tests. In the present study, patients with liver diseases either due to alcohol or without alcohol compared with a group of normal healthy persons. Heavy drinkers showed significantly lower body weight and percent body fat, and low BMI compared with other groups. The percentage of hemoglobin and total number of RBC were found to be significantly decreased, whereas mean corpuscular volume significantly increased in alcoholic liver disease. However, no significant variation in either of the groups tested was observed in case of polymorphonuclear cells, lymphocytes, eosinophil and ESR values. Hyperbilirubinemia, hyperuricemia and hypoalbuminemia correlate with alcohol intake. Albumin /globulin ratio significantly decreased in heavy drinker alcoholic liver disease patients. Alcohol-induced liver injury is linked to oxidative stress as observed by decreased level of reduced glutathione and increased level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. A similar change was also noted in case of ratio of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) are present in high concentration in hepatocytes. These enzymes leak into the circulation when hepatocytes or their cell membranes are damaged. Moderately elevated level of ALP and high GGT values are good discriminator of alcoholic patients. All these parameters in combinations may be useful indicator for identification and determination of severity of alcoholic liver diseases.

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Keywords: Alcohol abuse, alcoholic liver diseases, non-alcoholic liver diseases, biochemical, heamatological, enzyme activity and Biochemical parameters.

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