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Abstract

PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF SULFORAPHANE AND/OR SELENIUM NANOPARTICLES AS WELL AS BROCCOLI JUICE ON ALCL3 INDUCED ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE IN RATS

Ola Mohamed Samy Ahmad Sadek, Amira Abd El Rhman, Nehad Naem Hamed Shosha, Gehan Salah Eldin Moram Ali*, Azza Abd El Fattah Ali and Nahla Hussein Ali Ali

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We examined the effects of Sulforaphane (SFN) and/or Selenium (Se) nanoparticles (NPs) as well as fresh broccoli juice (FBJ), on metabolic, epigenetic, antioxidant, inflammatory and apoptotic markers in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) induced by AlCl3 in rats. Methods: After characterization of the NPs and the determination of FBJ’s bioactive components, sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups (G1: healthy control, G2: untreated AD rats, G3: SFN NPs, G4: Se NPs, G5: SFN +Se NPs and G6: FBJ). The nutraceuticals were used as pre-and post-AD treatments; rats were first given oral doses of the tested neutraceticals for 2 weeks then received daily i.p. injections of AlCl3.6H2O (70 mg/kg/day) to induce AD, and continued to receive the tested nutraceuticals along with the AlCl3 for
the next 5 weeks. Results: Our pre-and post-AD treatments significantly improved rats’ performances in Morris water maze task and the conditioned avoidance test. SFN NPs were the most effective, by virtue of their small size and characteristic, followed by FBJ. Epigenetic and antioxidant effects followed the same direction and were apparent through significantly halting the effects of AlCl3 on histone deacetylase activity as well as the gene expression of DNA methyltransferase-1 and heme oxygenase-1, further protecting the downstream endogenous antioxidant system. Levels of metabolic dysfunction, inflammation and apoptosis markers also reflected the neuroprotective effects of our pre-and post-AD treatments. These results were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical examinations. Conclusion: All tested pre-and post-AD treatments significantly exhibited neuroprotective actions however, SFN NPs were the most effective.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s, sulforaphane, selenium, broccoli, epigenetics, antioxidants.


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