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Abstract

EFFECT OF LONG TERM CONSUMPTION OF DRINKING WATER WITH HIGHER SODIUM ON HYPERTENSION

Naveen Chandra N. H.* and Lewlyn L. R. Rodrigues

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Water pollution is a matter of health concern and hypertension is considered as a major is major public health issue because of concomitant risk of coronary artery disease. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of high sodium in drinking water on development of hypertension. Methods: Various drinking water sources were analysed to find out the water sodium level and were categorized into sodium >60 mg/L and <20 mg/L. A total of 200 volunteers were who drink water with sodium>60 mg/L, and similarly a total of 200 volunteers who drink water with sodium <20 mg/L were recruited. All 400 volunteers from both sexes were healthy with controlled modifiable risk factors for hypertension. Results: The respective mean value of systolic blood pressure of male and female volunteers in the age group of 31 to 60 years in water sodium <20 mg/L group was 126.13 and 123.70 and in water sodium >60 mg/L group was 127.91 and 125.2. The difference in mean values of both groups in males and females were statistically non significant (respective p values 0.1045 and 0.1000). The respective mean value of diastolic blood pressure of male and female volunteers in water sodium <20 mg/L group was 83.66 and 82.57 and in water sodium >60 mg/L group was 85.32 and 83.39 mg/L. The difference was statistically not quite significant (p =0.0695) in case of males and non significant in case of female volunteers (p=0.3622). In age group 51- 60 years the mean difference of systolic pressure observed in water sodium<20 mg/L and >60 mg/L was 3.39 and 3.18 in males and females respectively. The p value is 0.0744 (Not quite significant) in males and 0.0280 (Significant) in female volunteers. The mean difference of diastolic pressure observed in water sodium<20 mg/L and >60 mg/L was 2.83 and 2.47 in males and females respectively. The p value is 0.0729 (Not quite significant) in males and 0.0753 (Not quite significant) in female volunteers. Conclusion: This study shows if the healthy individuals without modifiable risk factors for hypertension like obesity, hypercholesterolemia, excessive dietary intake of sodium, sedentary life style, smoking and alcoholism consumes water with high sodium level over a period of time develop high blood pressure in the fifth decade of life compared to healthy individuals consumes low level of water sodium without modifiable risk factors. The effect of water sodium is found to be more in female individuals in the fifth decade of life.

Keywords: Water sodium, Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Hypertension.


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