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Sunil Kumar Sharma*, Rameshwar Lal, Dr. Kedar Lal Meena and Kunal Ojha


The process through which the exact nature of the object and its exact position is known is called examination. Both true and untrue substances is examined by Aptopdesa (word of sages), Pratyaxa (direct observation), Anumaana (inference) and Yukti (reasoning). The special characteristics of the diseases can be known only through Aptopdesa. The subjects which directly perceived by sense organs come under the category of pratyax and indirect subject are tasted by Anumaan, Upamaan and Yukti pramana. Upamana pramana has a special significance for the study of medical science and experimental practice. Various subjects like examination of patient, drug diagnosis and treatment of diseases etc. are described on the basis of similarity with a well known subject. In Ayurvedic Samhitas, the natural and disturbed state of doshas, dhatus and malas, various symptoms of diseases and Karma (Ayurvedic therapies) have been described with the help of Upama. In this research paper different upmas from each sense organ will be collected from ayurved samhitas andcomparing of these upmas in disease symptom will be explained.

Keywords: Examination, Pramana, Pratyax, Anumaan, Upmaan, Yukti etc.

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