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Abstract

IMMUNOPHENOTYPING OF HIV PATIENTS CO-INFECTED WITH MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS

Anwara Ogbonnaya*, Humphrey Osadolor Benedo, Edeogu Chucks Oswald, Akinpelu Moronkeji, Patrick Manafa Onochie

ABSTRACT

Human immunodeficiency virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been linked with immune suppression leading to an impaired immune response to pathogenic infections. Several studies on HIV, TB, HIV/TB co-infection were previously focused on the estimation of immunological damage to various human tissues. This present study attempt to immunophenotype the CD4+ and CD8+ cells counts of HIV, TB and HIV/TB subgroups bearing in mind age and gender relationships of the subjects. A cross-sectional random sampling method was used for 400 subjects. Flow cytometer was used for immunophenotyping of CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts. HIV diagnosis was performed using the National Algorithm utilizing Determine, Stat Pak and Uni-Gold rapid test kits. while gene-Xpert was used for identification Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The result observed showed a significant variation in the ages of HIV, TB and HIV/TB categories and also in their gender (P < 0.001 and P < 0.002 respectively). Chronologically, Older HIV patients from (30 - 59) had significantly lower CD4+ count with the least counts found within (60 - 69) age group. A higher significant decrease was also observed between the mean CD4+ and CD8+ counts of HIV, TB, HIV/TB categories (P < 0.005 and P < 0.012 respectively). A Post Hoc test of a homogeneous subset was used to ascertain which of the group is responsible for the significant difference in the mean CD4+ and CD8+ counts of HIV, TB, HIV/TB categories. Result revealed that the mean CD4+ counts of (HIV and HIV/TB, TB and HIV/TB) groups and mean CD8+ counts of (HIV and TB, HIV and HIV/TB) groups contribute higher to the significant decrease (P < 0.001) observed that the mean CD4+ categories of (HIV and TB) and the mean CD8+ of (TB and HIV/TB) groups which was not significant (P > 0.0603). Since older HIV patients from (30 - 69) showed lower CD4+ count and the least count found within 60 - 69 age group and since the CD4+ cell counts decrease with increasing age of the study participants. Developing program targeting older subject from 30 - 69 age group and applying methods with high productivity, sensitivity and specificity will help in faster medical treatment in the countries with high TB, HIV/AIDS and HIV/TB prevalence and in general population.

Keywords: Immunophenotyping, HIV, TB, HIV/TB, CD4+ and CD8.


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