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Abstract

OBESITY AND ITS COMPLICATIONS IN PREGNANCY-A REVIEW PAPER

Upadhyay Kanchan*, Singh J. P. and Sonkar Sarita

ABSTRACT

World Health Organization estimates Obesity, the silent epidemic worldwide has reached a stage where approximately 2.3 billion adults will be overweight and more than 700 million adults will be obese by 2015.[1] According to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) in India, the percentage of ever-married women aged 15-49 years who are overweight or obese increased from 11% in NFHS- 2 in 1998-1999 to 15% in NFHS-3 in 2005-06. Obesity is increasing, both in the general population and in women of reproductive age. Obesity in pregnant women increases the risks of maternal and perinatal complications. WHO has defined the criteria of overweight as BMI>25 kg/m2 and that for obesity as BMI>30 kg/m2.[2] The increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide has prompted the WHO to designate obesity as one of the most important public health threats in the world. The four states in South India also being the predominantly rice eating population have a high incidence in obesity among women.[3] Several studies in India have reiterated the fact that vaginal delivery, postpartum infection, post-delivery deep vein thrombosis obesity in pregnancy puts the mother and the fetus at the risk of several complications such as gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy induced hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm labour, dysfunctional labour, caesarean section, instrumental delivery. Neonates of obese women were mostly large for gestational age, macrosomic and they had high incidences of birth injuries, shoulder dystocia, premature deliveries, late fetal deaths and congenital malformations particularly spina bifida, cleft lip, cleft palate and heart defect.[4] This purpose of this study is to find out the incidence of the pregnancy complications due to maternal obesity and to assess the neonatal outcome and obstetric outcome and to educate treating clinicians regarding the importance of pre-conceptional counseling regarding obesity and related issues. The results of this study will enable to highlight a problem that is a modifiable risk factor for several conditions in pregnancy and also a long term risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and for diabetes mellitus.

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