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Abstract

A REVIEW ON ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE, BIOFILM FORMATION AND QUORUM SENSING

Chetan M. Jain* and Krutika S. Sonar

ABSTRACT

Resistance to antibiotics is observed when drug lower the effect against the disease causing bacteria and multiplication of bacteria is continues in presence of antimicrobial agents and these replication of bacteria in presence of antimicrobial agents is known as antimicrobial resistance. Microorganism are become resistance to bacterial infections by different mechanism especially based on chemical structure and mode of action of antibiotics such as Efflux pumps, Antibiotic inactivation, β-lactamases, Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, Chloramphenicol acetyltransferases, Modifications of the Antibiotic Molecule. In these review article we have focused on antimicrobial resistance and also on biofilm and Quorum sensing. A microbial biofilm is group of cell of microorganism which are enclosed in a extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM) produced by the microorganism itself and attached to a living surface. In the process of biofilm formation the microorganism should attach to the surface. Bacteria are approach to surface by two forces such as attractive and repulsive. The formation of biofilm is mainly explained by three stages Viz. attachment, maturation and dispersion. Quorum sensing is the communication between the cells. Quorum sensing regulate the virulence factors like biofilm formation, motility, production of proteases. Hemolysin, pyocyanin, toxins and pigment production from the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here in these review we also discuss plants used as anti-QS agents.

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