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Abstract

A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF ANTIMALARIAL DRUG UTILIZATION IN A SECONDARY HEALTHCARE INSTITUTION IN NIGERIA

Bruce S.O.*, Usifoh S. F., Nduka S.O., Anetoh M.U. and Isidienu C.P.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Malaria is a mosquito borne tropical and infectious disease with high morbidity, mortality and prevalence. The prescription pattern of antimalarial drugs was evaluated in a secondary healthcare institution in Nigeria. Methods: A cross- sectional study of drug prescription pattern in the management of malaria, in the Medical Centre of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria, between January 2015 to December 2017. Eight hundred prescriptions were randomly selected from the patient’s folders in the pharmacy record department, recorded and analysed. Results: A total of 800 prescriptions were analysed which showed there were more male encounters (55.13%) 441 than females (44.88%)359. Artemether/ Lumefantrine was most frequently prescribed among antimalarial agents accounted for (73.29%)623. For monotherapies, Quinine was the most used of (4.94%)42. The antibiotic drugs mostly co-prescribed with the different antimalarial were Doxycycline (26.68%)107 and Ciprofloxacin (26.93%)108 were the most prescribed amongst other antibiotics used. The different classes of medication prescribed multivitamins (27.33%)892 was the most prescribed, followed by antimalarial drugs (26.04%)850 and antibacterial (11.89%)388. Malaria treatment can be cost-effective and affordable, in this case, the different cost of treatment (Naira) vary, which indicates that between 1000-2000 naira (45.49%)247 over 2 years, was the most affordable and purchased drug in the hospital. Conclusion: This suggests a vastly improved and substantial uptake of Artemether/ Lumenfantrine (AL), as the policy first-line drug in Nigeria. Quinine and Sulfadoxine/ Pyrimethamine were the most used, Quinine as anti-malarial drug of choice for the first line treatment of the uncomplicated malaria. However the use of monotherapy remains significantly high due mainly to the recommendation of the World Health Organisation.

Keywords: Drug Utilization, Prescription pattern, Anti-malarial drugs, Artemisinin combination therapy, Artemether/ Lumefatrine (AL), Sulfadoxine/ Pyrimethamine (SP).


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