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Abstract

A REVIEW ON URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS (UTI)

B. Bhanu Priya*

ABSTRACT

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections, affect men and women of all ages, and vary dramatically in their presentation and sequelae. Although the urinary tract is normally free of bacterial growth, bacteria that generally ascend from the rectal reservoir may cause UTIs. When bacterial virulence increases or host defense mechanisms decrease, bacterial inoculation, colonization, and infection of the urinary tract occur. Careful diagnosis and treatment result in successful resolution of infections in most instances. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of UTI fund the role of host and bacterial factors has improved the ability to identify patients at risk and prevent the infection. Clinical manifestations can vary from asymptomatic bacterial colonization of the bladder to irritative symptoms such as frequency and urgency associated with bacterial infection upper tract infections associated with fever, chills, and flank pain and bacteremia associated with severe morbidity, including sepsis and death. New antimicrobial agents that achieve high urinary and tissue levels, can be administered orally, and are not nephrotoxic have significantly reduced the need for hospitalization for severe infection. Shorter-course therapy and prophylactic antimicrobial agents have reduced the morbidity and host associated with recurrent cystitis in women. Although the vast majority of patients respond promptly and are cured by therapy early identification and treatment of patients with complicated infections that place them at significant risk remains a clinical challenge to urologist.

Keywords: Urinary tract infection, flank pain, bacteremia, nephrotoxic, recurrent cystitis, hospitalization.


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