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Dr. Muhammad Baqir MR Fakhrildin
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Prof. Ragaa Issa*


Objective: The geographic location of patient and clinical and travel history beside the clinical symptoms is the first step for diagnosis of parasitic disease. Also, the microscopic examination is main step for diagnosis of parasites. The parasites are divided to intestinal, blood, on skin, cerebral, hepatic, or ocular. So, the samples, which is taken from patient may be stool, blood, sputum, skin scrub, urine, saliva, vaginal swap, or biopsy. The test for diagnosis of human parasites may be need serum to detect the antibodies or antigen to know the kind of parasite. Also, sometimes, need the X-ray, CT, or animal inoculation. Methods: The diagnosis of parasitic diseases take many steps. -At first: managing the sample administrative as laboratory identification number and an outbreak identification label, storage by refrigeration or freeze. -Second: the methods of laboratory were divided into two types, direct and indirect. Results: The most recent techniques are Proteomic fingerprints, Nanotechnology, Biosensor. The recent tests are RT-PCR, LAMP, Luminex, that allows the detection of various targets simultaneously. RARD (random amplified polymorphic DNA), AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism), RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), ELISA: FAS-ELISA, RIPA-ELISA and Tri-combo. Since lot a years ago the diagnosis of parasitic diseases was taken several steps, initially from macroscopic examination, ending by molecular techniques. The direct method – look for /detect the agent, Indirect method – detect host response to the agent. Numbers of immunological/serological techniques have been emerged such as (CFT), (ID), (IHA), Direct or Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFA). Conclusion: Today the tests is improved to give most accurate result and specific. Also, to short the time of diagnosis for accelerate the treatment. In future study most focused on identifying of a specific proteins which it circulate in patient’ serum. Also, in future, the physicians are will change there vision for using medical nanotechnology.

Keywords: Parasites, diagnosis, diseases, ELISA, Nano-scale, biosensor, fingerprinting.

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