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Abstract

ECTOPIC PREGNANCY – AN OVERVIEW

Jasmy E. S.*, Sharon Ann Varghese, Megha Anna Varghese, Sara Yeldhos and Anjana Baby

ABSTRACT

Ectopic pregnancy is the disaster of reproduction and is defined as any intra or extra uterine pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum implants at an aberrant site which is nonconductive to its growth and development. Worldwide, ectopic pregnancy complicates 0.25-2.0% of all pregnancies. The known risks of ectopic pregnancy is the history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), cigarette smoking, utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol(DES), and with current IUD use, previous tubal ligation, history of infertility, using oral contraceptives before the age of 16 years and alcohol intake. Among the three types of EP; tubal, cervical and ovarian; tubal is the common type. In the past, EP was diagnosed on clinical symptoms. Recently, detection of EP is possible through serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and progesterone levels as well as vaginal ultrasonography techniques. The treatment option of EP involves surgical treatment by laparotomy or laparoscopy, and medical treatment by using Methotrexate usually systemic or through local route, or by expectant treatment. Careful clinical and imaging scrutiny of patients will result in the successful diagnosis and early management of ectopic pregnancy. The development of basic protocols, improved training, developing specific health programmes and the infusion of basic resources may go a long way to improving the situation. Health professionals and public health officials, should consider EP as a major obstetric problem for maternal morbidity and give urgent attention to this problem.

Keywords: Ectopic Pregnancy (EP), Complications, Diagnosis, Management, Maternity.


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