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Abstract

ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF PRESERVATIVE EFFICACY IN FORMULATIONS OF LOCALLY SOURCED KAOLIN

Emmanuel C. Ezeobiora*, Adebowale O. Adeluola and Udoma E. Mendie

ABSTRACT

Kaolin anti-diarrheal suspension is a pharmaceutical preparation having high water content and of earthy source. This makes it vulnerable to microbial degradation and spoilage. It therefore requires adequate preservation to retard proliferation of microbial contaminants. This study intended to evaluate and compare the efficacy of different preservative agents employed in the formulations of locally sourced kaolin raw material. Suspensions of kaolin were prepared following standard laboratory procedures from a locally sourced, processed and standardized sample. Samples of kaolin suspension containing 0.25% chloroform, 0.1% benzoic acid, 0.2% methyl paraben and a combination of 0.2% methyl paraben with 0.02% propyl paraben were challenged with 3 bacterial and 2 fungal strains and results were periodically assessed on day 0, the 7th, 14th and 28th days. Standard microbiological pourplate dilution technique was used to determine the number of surviving microorganisms. The log number of surviving microorganism (cfu/ml) was tabulated and plotted against time (days). Results from our studies showed a remarkable log reduction of microbial counts observed in all samples preserved with 0.2% methyl paraben and the combination of 0.2% methyl paraben with 0.02% propyl paraben on the 7th day with a continuous decline in the number of surviving microorganisms up to the 28th day. Samples preserved with 0.1% benzoic acid and 0.25% chloroform showed continuous increase in the log numbers of surviving organisms over the period of test. In Conclusion, methyl paraben and combination of methyl and propyl parabens were effective against all the challenged microorganisms in the kaolin suspension. The combination of methyl paraben and propyl paraben was the most effective preservative system showing the greatest decline in the number of surviving microorganisms over time and ability to prevent contamination during use and storage of the product. Benzoic acid (0.1%) and chloroform (0.25%) on the other hand were ineffective preservative systems in the kaolin suspension.

Keywords: kaolin suspension, microorganism, preservative, challenge test.


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