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Shivani Deshmukh, Shazia Mansoor, Alibha Rawat, Asha Agarwal, Rupa Guha Nandi and *N. Ganesh


Introduction: Human body contains normal flora which is helpful in body systems. But some microbes invade human body and cause harm & diseases. These disease-causing organisms can be transmitted from one to other individuals leading to nosocomial and hospital-borne infection. The collection of different microorganisms, mainly bacteria, in a host body is known as flora. Micro-flora responsible for harmful diseases is often Allochthonous flora. Microbes are distributed everywhere in the environment surroundings us they are found in the air, water, soil, plant, animal, food product, in the human body and on the surface of the human body. Microorganisms are classified into Archaea bacteria, fungi, algae, virus, protozoa, and multi-cellular organisms. The term Nosocomial infection is used for Hospital-Acquired Infection and Health care‚Äďassociated infection (HAI or HCAI). Nosocomial infections are caused mainly by airborne pathogen found in healthcare facilities of their surroundings (2015). The aim of this study is to identify bacteria and fungi in a hospital. An infection can be acquired in hospital, nursing home rehabilitation facility, outpatient clinic, diagnostic laboratory or other clinical settings. Infection spreads to the susceptible patient in the clinical setting by various means. Health care staff also spread infection, in addition to contaminated equipment, bed linens, or air droplets. The infection can originate from infected patients, environment & unhygienic staff or in some cases the source of the infection cannot be determined, whereas, sometimes infection spreads from patients own skin microflora this may be due to weak immunity & patients after surgery. The current review explores the studies done on the nosocomial infections and their impact. Method: Electronic search was done to collect relevant studies. The studies were then summarized and analyzed for better understanding of the subject to help in the prevention of this very serious problem faced by hospitals and patients.

Keywords: Hospital-acquired infection, hygiene, environment, isolation of microbes, nosocomial infection.

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