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Abstract

PREVALENCE OF RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PAEDIATRIC POPULATION AND COMPARE THE INCIDENCE OF URTI AND LRTI AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

Isha Begum, Sravanthi Kadarla, Dr. Satyakanth Maddela and Dr. Arjumand Naaz*

ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are among the most common illnesses reported by paediatric population in monsoon season. Hospitalizations are much more common in children less than 2 years of age and immunocompromised individuals’ weak immune system.[2] High-risk groups such as infants, small children, the elderly and subjects with chronic and chronic tracheobronchial or pulmonary disease are at elevated risk of growing severe clinical consequences. And it is sometimes life- threatening for children if not treated or not given a potential treatment. This prospective observational study was performed to study the prevalence of RTI’s in paediatric population and compare the incidence of Upper Respiratory Tract (Common Cold, Sinusitis, tonsillitis, Otitis externa, Otitis media, Pharyngitis, Epiglottitis and Laryngotracheitis) and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (Bronchitis, Bronchiolitis and Pneumonia in children. A total of 589 patients satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study. All guardians of the patients were informed regarding the study and patient’s consents were taken. The prevalence of these Respiratory Tract Infections was analysed by evaluating the sample collection, gender distribution, age distribution, locality and incidence of different types of URTI, LRTI and URTI and LRTI. The required information was collected from the patient case sheet and the patient. Data regarding RTIs and related to pulmonary infections were recorded throughout the study period i.e. 4 months till the end of the monsoon in south India. It was found that the rate of infection of respiratory tract in males was 32% and females was 68%. From the overall population, the proportion of LRTI (81%) was higher than URTI (12%). Rate of comorbidity of LRTI along with URTI was way lesser than the individual infections within the study population. The age of 1 -10 months infants recorded excessive amount of exposure to the respiratory infections than other age groups. Here we conclude that there is a high incidence of LRTI in contrast to URTI in the particular area of study. The incidence is underestimated mainly because the majority of infections are mild and not debilitated. But respiratory infections are more common in the monsoon when indoor crowding facilitates transmission, as the epidemiological studies and mortality rate say that there is a huge risk from these infections. And the all the people and guardians of the children should be aware of the potential life-threatening risk of respiratory tract infections maintain the preventive measures before it converts in to a complication that is proved in many clinical practices around the globe.

Keywords: Respiratory tract infections, LRTI, URTI, Paediatric population, Compare the incidence of RTIs, Prevalence of RTIs, Monsoon season, South India.


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