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Abstract

EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND LARVICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF TARAXEROL EXTRACTED FROM LEAF OF CODIAEUM VARIEGATUM AGAINST CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) LARVAE

Abhay Deep Johnson and Ajay Singh*

ABSTRACT

The larvicidal activity of biologically active compound, taraxerol extracted from Codiaeum variegatum (family: Euphorbiaceae) leaf obtained through soxhlet apparatus against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus which is the serious vector of filarial worm, Wuchereria bancrofti causing lymphatic filariasis in human beings. The active compound taraxerol extracted through petrol from the leaf of Codiaeum variegatum was administered for 24h or 96h to the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. Mortality produced by taraxerol for the periods ranging from 24 to 96h. The toxicity of petrol extract was time and dose dependent for Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The LC50 values of taraxerol were a significant negative correlation between LC values and exposure periods. i.e. LC50 values of petrol extract of Codiaeum variegatum leaf decreased from 73.03 mg/L (24h) > 66.05 mg/L (48h) > 57.64mg/L (72h) > 50.90mg/L (96h) in case of Culex quinquefasciatus. Exposure of larvae over 24h to sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50) of petrol extract of Codiaeum variegatum leaf, significantly (P<0.05) altered the level of total protein, total free amino acid, glycogen and enzyme activity i.e. acetyl cholinesterase activity, acid and alkaline phosphates activity in whole body tissue of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The alterations in all these biochemical parameters were significantly (P<0.05) time and dose dependent. Codiaeum variegatum (Family: Euphorbiaceae) commonly known as croton in India, which is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various human ailments such as antiamoebic, antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, antioxidant, emmenagogue, purgative and sedative. A decoction of the crushed leaves is used in the treatment of diarrhea. The root is used in the treatment of gastric ulcers and wound healing activity.

Keywords: Codiaeum variegatum, Euphorbiaceae, Culex quinquefasciatus, biochemical effects, Wuchereria bancrofti.


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