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Dr. Muhammad Baqir MR Fakhrildin
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Abstract

EMERGING ROLE OF PRECISION MEDICINE IN CANCER TREATMENT

Arathy P. Nair*, Sowparnika Treasa Sabu and Shaiju S. Dharan

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancer remains a serious threat with high risk of mortality. Cancer begins when genetic changes interfere with the orderly process of cell growth. The changes that occur in one person’s cancer may not occur in others who have the same type of cancer. And, the same cancer-causing changes may be found in different types of cancer. Precision cancer medicine comes from studies of human genes and the genes involved in different cancers. Methods: Previously published articles regarding the role of precision medicine in cancer treatment have been collected and reviewed. Observations: Precision medicine refers to the tailoring of medical treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient. Cancer is a major focus of the precision medicine initiative. Precision cancer medicine focuses on matching the most accurate and effective treatment to each individual cancer patient based on the genetic profile of the cancer and the individual. Genetic testing may help determine if a patient was born with a higher risk of developing cancer due to an inherited gene mutation. There exists a growing category of precision products called companion diagnostics (CDx), which are molecular assays that measure levels of proteins, genes, or specific mutations to reveal a specific, efficacious therapy for an individual’s condition. Advanced genomic testing is designed to help identify the DNA alterations that may be driving the growth of a specific tumor. Information about genomic mutations that are unique to individual cancer may help doctors identify treatments designed to target those mutations. Experts believe precision medicine could help lower health care costs in some ways. Precision medicine can help guide doctors in choosing the right tests, which can then help them choose the treatments that will work best and hopefully have the fewest side effects.

Keywords: Precision medicine, Personalised medicine, Genes, Cancer treatment.


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