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Dr. Muhammad Baqir MR Fakhrildin
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Abstract

A REVIEW ON BIOTOXINS AND PESTICIDES AS ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS ON THE FISH REPRODUCTION

Dr. Bainagari Akhila*

ABSTRACT

Exposure to low-levels of some chemical the contaminants or xenobiotics present in the wastewater which is released from the industries, houses, agricultural and non-agricultural lands discharges as a source of endocrine-disrupting chemicals to the freshwater, marine water, and brackish aquatic environment shows potential effects on the endocrine system especially disruption of endocrine functions in animals, such as reproduction. This is done by modulating, mimicking, or interfering with normal hormonal activity. The present review shows that the effect of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (Biotoxins and Pesticides) on fish reproductive endpoints including spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, activities of antioxidants, fecundity potential, egg production, and estradiol levels of male and female fishes. In the present review study, the exposure to pesticides combined with mycotoxins further deteriorated the reproductive endpoints indicating additive effects of these endocrine-disrupting chemicals significantly decreased almost overall reproductive parameters like tissue indices reproductive organs, sperm quantity and quality, steroidogenic enzyme activities, levels of testosterone, histology of testis, lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzyme activities are inflated by pesticides and biotoxins in male and female fishes. It is concluded that these toxicants deteriorate the reproductive ability of male and female fishes.

Keywords: Endocrine disruptors, Biotoxins, Pesticides, Reproductive end points, Fishes.


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