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Seema Kumari*, Dr. Sujeet Gupta, Dr. Bhumika Yogi, Dipanshu Panday and Rajvinder Kaur


One of the most commonly used spices is black pepper (Piper nigrum). For its distinct biting consistency attributed to the alkaloid, piperine, it is appreciated. Black pepper is not only used for human diets, but also for a number of other uses, such as drugs, preservatives and perfumery. In recent decades, several physiological effects of black pepper, its extracts, or its main active ingredient, piperine, have been recorded. Dietary piperine increases digestive ability by favourably enhancing the digestive enzymes of the pancreas and substantially reduces the transit time of gastrointestinal food. In vitro studies have been shown to protect against oxidative damage by inhibiting or quenching free radicals and reactive oxygen species in piperine. Black pepper or piperine treatment has also been shown to lower in vivo lipid peroxidation and to have a beneficial impact on the status of cellular thiol, antioxidant molecules and antioxidant enzymes in a variety of oxidative stress experimental situations. Piperine's most far-reaching feature has been its inhibitory effect on bio-transforming enzymatic drug reactions in the liver. It strongly inhibits hydroxylase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase of hepatic and gut aryl hydrocarbons. In order to improve the bioavailability of a variety of therapeutic drugs and phytochemicals by this very property, piperine has been reported. The bioavailability enhancing property of piperine is also partially due to increased absorption as a result of its effect on the intestinal brush boundary ultrastructure. While there were initially a few controversial reports on the safety of black pepper as a food additive, such evidence was doubtful and subsequent research in many animal studies have proven the safety of black pepper or its active ingredient, piperine. Piperine has actually been shown to have anti-mutagenic and anti-tumor influences, though it is non-genotoxic.

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