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Abstract

INVESTIGATING THROUGH CROSS-ADULTERATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN ANIMAL FARMS: FOCUS ON POULTRIES IN SOUTH CAMEROON

Pierre René Fotsing Kwetché*, Pascal Blaise Well à Well à Koul, Arlette Kengne, Blandine Pulcherie Tamatcho Kweyang, Anselme Michel Yawat Djogang, O’Neal Dorsel Youté, William Lelorel Nankam Nguekap, Willy Vanessa Lontsi Ngoda, Valere Igor Deumi Monthé, Peguy Martial Mbianda Tchuessi, Christine Ebenye Mandengue and Jean Michel Tekam

ABSTRACT

Infection prevention and control arsenals are challenged by sets of putative constraints that act at all levels where interventions to mitigate their impact can be conducted. In order to identify the clues that can be enacted to improve on infection prevention and control, the present survey was conducted on a few farms in South Cameroon. Focus was on identification of major bacterial types in poultries and the resistance profiles of isolates. Both sets of variables were used to address adulteration within and beyond the farm premises. Specimen subjected include, animal excreta, foods and drinking water within the farm; and fingerprinting from farmers after work. All investigations were conducted according to standard protocols (REMIC 2018 and CA-SFM 2019). Data analysis revealed that the most common antibacterial agents on the farms belonged to the beta-lactams (40%) and quinolones (20%) families of drugs. Further details indicated that all participants were aware of the role that antimicrobial agents could play in the prevention of diseases and in growth promotion. They also acknowledged that abusive use of these agents could reduce their effectiveness. The total of 879 bacterial isolates was recovered from chicken excreta, food, drinking water and farmers’ fingers. The most common bacterial isolates were Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus. Markers of low hygiene and low biosecurity were identified. Globally for each specimen type, the highest rates of resistance were recorded against Cotrimoxazole (100%), Aztreonam (99%), Erythromycin (94%), Ceftriaxone (90%) and Tetracycline (88%). Several human-related factors were also likely to instigate selection and dissemination of resistant bacteria in the farm premises while specific valuable clues could help predict spreading beyond. Excreta appeared as the source of contamination while animal drinking water was central to selection of resistant strains and poor sanitation, the engine for spread. To mitigate resistant infections in the intermediate run, fostering farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices on biosafety and biosecurity advocated by the “One Health” principle seemed to be primordial.

Keywords: Bacteria, Susceptibility/resistance, cross-adulteration, poultry.


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