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Abstract

THE APOPTOTIC EFFECT OF ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID THROUGH ANTI-INFLAMMATORY IN BLADDER CANCER CELLS

Neslihan P?nar*, Halil Mahir Kaplan and Ergin ?ingirik

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is one of the omega-3 fatty acids and has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Previous studies have shown that ALA affects apoptosis, known as cell death, in some cancer cells and reduces inflammation. Apoptotic pathways are important for cancers, chemotherapeutic resistance and cancer development. Furthermore, some studies have reported that the use of anti-inflammatory agents may be a potential strategy for the inhibition of cancer. Therefore, we planned to investigate the activities of apoptotic mediators such as caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2), BCL2 Associated X (bax), wee1 (a nuclear protein), growth arrest and DNA damage 153 (gadd153), Glucose Regulated Protein 78 (grp78), allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF) and inflammatory mediators Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), Siklooksijenaz-2 (COX-2), Cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2) and Nuclear factor-κB (NFkB) in bladder cancer cells treated with ALA. Material and methods: Bladder cancer cell lines were treated with ALA and their activity of caspase-3 and expression of bax, bcl-2, wee1, gadd153, grp78, AIF, and iNOS, COX-2, cPLA2 and NFkB were analyzed using ELISA assay. Results: While ALA treatment increased caspase-3 activity and the expression of bax, wee1, gadD153, grp78 and AIF, reduced the expression of bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein. ALA also decreased the expression of iNOS, COX-2, cPLA2 and NFkB in bladder cancer cells. Conclusion: Based on our findings, we conclude that ALA may prevent the development of bladder cancer and its anti-inflammatory effect can contribute to this effect.

Keywords: Alpha-linolenic acid, bladder cancer, apoptosis, inflammation, cell line


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