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Abstract

EVALUATION OF LEVELS OF ADHERENCE AND FACTORS INFLUENCING PATIENT’S ADHERENCE TO MEDICATION

Brian S. Thompson* and Stella F. Usifoh

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Poor medication adherence has been shown to be a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality. Ineffective management as well as deterioration of patient’s health, increased admissions are some of the consequences of non adherence. Objectives: Evaluate levels of adherence to medication as well as patient behaviors and demographic factors that impact adherence. Method: The study was done in three pharmacies across Freetown using a purposive sample of 200 patients that matched the inclusion criteria of the study. Validated questionnaires that were adapted which included questions on patient behavior and demographic factors, were administered to respondents. This was used to evaluate levels of adherence and factors influencing patient’s adherence to medications. The data was analyzed using SPSS and Microsoft excel to produce figures and tables. Results: About 90 respondents exhibited the highest form of nonadherence, 63 scored medium and 46 exhibited the highest levels of adherence. Of the 50(25%) respondents with tertiary education, 17(34%) had the highest levels of nonadherence and 9(18.0%) had the highest levels of adherence. For those with vocational training, 26(26.8 %) had the highest levels of non-adherence and 25(25.8 %)had the highest level of adherence. Women were generally more adherent to medications than men. For instance 53(55%) of the men stopped taking their medications when they felt better and 59(61.2%) of men also stopped taking their medications when they felt worse, whereas only 46(44.3%) of the women stopped taking their medications when they felt better and 57(55.7%) of the women stopped their medications when they felt worse. Conclusion: This study showed that while illiteracy impacted adherence negatively, there was no direct relationship between education and adherence levels Also the levels of non-adherence were very high and levels of adherence were low. It also shows that, apart from sex no specific set of patient demographics could be used to accurately predict levels of adherence. Patient behaviors promoting non-adherence were commonly practiced

Keywords: Adherence, Medication, Behavior.


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