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Abstract

AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF DICHROSTACHYS GLOMERATA ON POST SEIZURE VISUOSPARTIAL AND COGNITIVE MEMORY AND LEARNING FUNCTION IN PENTELENETETRAZOL KINDLED MICE

*Tom Emmanuel Monday, Asuquo Joseph Okon

ABSTRACT

In addition to the recurrent seizures, epilepsy is also associated with post-seizure impairment in cognitive and visuo-spartial memory function. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling is a well established animal model in simulation of clinical epilepsy. This present study was designed to comparatively assess the effects of diazepam (DZP) and ethanol leaf-extract of Dichrostachys glomerata (DG) on learning and memory in pentylenetetrazol induced epileptic mice. Twenty eight male Swiss white mice were randomly grouped into four (n=7). Group 1 served as control and was given 0.9% normal saline (IP). Group 2 served as untreated epileptic control group and was administered(IP) 60mg/kg of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) while the other two groups (3 and 4) served as epileptic mice groups treated with DZP (1mg/kg) and DG (4.5mg/kg) respectively prior to induction of epilepsy. The anti-epileptic effects of both agents on cognitive and visuo-spatial memory Status on the animals were assessed using the Novel object recognition task (NORT) and the Morris water maze (MWM) respectively. The results obtained during the anti-epileptic study showed that seizure activities was completely abolished in the DZP treated epileptic mice group and significantly lower in the DG treated epileptic mice group compared to the PTZ group. In the NORT, the index of habituation was significantly higher in the PTZ group compared to control but however significantly lower in the DZP and DG treated epileptic mice groups compared to the PTZ during the short-term memory test. Also the index of discrimination was consistently lower in the PTZ group compared to control but significantly higher in the DZP and DG treated groups compared to PTZ group in both short-term and long-term memory test. This indicated that cognitive memory impaired in the epileptic mice groups was improved following treatment with both DZP and DG. In the MWM, there was no significant difference in the swim latencies amongst the animal groups during the acquisition and reversal training. On the probe trial day, there was no significant difference in the mean south west quadrant duration in the PTZ group compared to control, however this was significantly higher in the DZP and DG treated epileptic mice groups compared to the PTZ group. There was also a significant decrease in annulus reversal crosses in the PTZ group compared to control but a significant increase in the DZP and DG treated epileptic mice groups compared to the PTZ group. Also the swim latencies on the visible platform day increased significantly in the PTZ group compared to control but significantly decreased in the DZP and PTZ treated epileptic mice groups compared to the PTZ group. Therefore, the results suggests that both diazepam and ethanol leaf-extract of Dichrostachys glomerata improved cognitive and visuo-spatial memory and learning that was impaired following pentylenetetrazol induced epilepsy in mice. However, diazepam was more potent and more efficient than the plant leaf- extract.

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