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Shetty MS, Yadav Kameshwar, Shenoy S, Bhandarkar AP*, Vaishnav RL, Shenoy GK


Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common cause of progressive dementia in the elderly, is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that leads to disturbances of cognitive functions. The effects and benefits of Acacia auriculiformis (AA) on health are not well established. Aim of the study: This study was planned to evaluate the protective effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves against scopolamine-induced memory loss using learning and memory model in rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four adult male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups. Memory retention performance of rats was evaluated using Morris’ water maze after oral administration of two different doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis with rivastigmine 5 mg/kg as positive control and 1% Tween-80 p.o. to the normal control group for 45 successive days. On the last day of treatment, a single i.p injection of scopolamine 3 mg/kg was administered one hour after the test agent administration and 20 minutes prior to water maze test. Post behavioral testing, the animals were sacrificed and brain cholinesterase activity was estimated to substantiate the findings of behavioral test. Data was analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test using GraphPad Prism software, version 6.01. Results: The AA extract exhibited a dose-dependent improvement in memory retention performance in rats with scopolamine-induced dementia tested on water maze model. Dose-dependent inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity (P < 0.001) was also noted in extract-treated groups. 400 mg/kg AAE group showed much superior results than rivastigmine in all four parameters of water maze like target quadrant entry (P < 0.001), island entry, escape latency and total time spent in target quadrant (P< 0.05), and also in AChE inhibitory activity (P< 0.001).There was no significant difference between 200 mg/kg AAE and rivastigmine groups in both behavioral and biochemical tests. Conclusion: It is evident that acetylcholinesterase inhibiting property of Acacia auriculiformis is the most likely contributor for its anti-amnesic activity. Further well-designed large scale studies are required to clearly elucidate its benefits as well as safety in humans. In future this may offer a promising novel option for the treatment of dementia disorders.

Keywords: Acacia auriculiformis, acetylcholinesterase, water maze, Alzheimer’s disease

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