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Essam M. Abdel -Kader and Zeinab T. ABD EL Shakour


Objective Dillenia indica L. (Dilleniaceae), is found to have good
medicinal and therapeutic values and is being used by tribal and folk
communities of various regions. Although its fruit is edible, it is not
very much well known by people in Egypt. Its richness in phenolics
and triterpenoids had led to test for its antioxidant and cytotoxic
activities and isolation of its components. Methods: Preliminary
phytochemical screening analysis of the ethanol extracts of leaves,
stems and fruits, of D. indica L., was done. Isolation of some phenolics
from fruit extracts was done using usual chromatographic techniques.
Triterpenoid have been analyzed by gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry. The antioxidant activity of the fruit extracts was
measured using the stable free radical DPPH assay. The cytotoxic
activity of the ethanol extracts of leaves, stems and fruits, was tested using two cell lines:
colon carcinoma cell line (HCT-116) and liver carcinoma cell line (HEPG2) adopting SRB
method. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanol extracts of the
leaves, stems and fruits of D. indica L., revealed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, tannins,
saponins, anthocyanins and flavonoids and absence of alkaloids and cardiac glycosides.
Seven compounds had been isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of the fruit of D.
indica L. namely Quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside (1), Rhamnetin-3-O-rhamnopyranoside (2),
Apigenin-6-C-arabinopyranosyl-8-C-glucopyranoside (3), Apigenin-6, 8-di-Cglucopyranoside
(4), Quercetin-3, 7-di-O-glucopyranoside (5), Myricetin (6) Myricetin-3-Oglucopyranoside
(7). The fruits extract showed very strong free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 30. 38 μg/mL. Only the ethanol extract of D. indica L. stems showed significant cytotoxicity activity against HCT-116 and HEPG2 carcinoma cell lines with IC50 = 9.8 μg and IC50 = 20.1 μg respectiviely, while The ethanol extract of leaves and fruits failed to exert a considerable effect on HCT-116 and HEPG2 carcinoma cell lines. Sixteen triterpenoids compounds were identified in the leaves, stems and fruits. Lupeol was the major component in leaves, stem and fruits being of 32.72, 37.49 and 16.48% respectively, followed by betulinaldehyde 20.28, 23.29 and 16.06% and betulinic acid 18.41, 22.29 and14.62% respectively. Conclusion: D. indica L. can be considered as a natural medicinal plant with a potential antioxidant and anticancer activities due to its bioactive ingredients.

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