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*Ashish H. Bajaj, Yadav K.S. and Gomes Merlyn W.


Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne tropical disease and is also known as breakbone fever, caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache and joint pains and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a minor proportion of cases, the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, thrombocytopaenia and plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs. There are five strains of the virus, called serotypes, of which the first four are referred to as DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4 (DENVDengue Virus). The fifth type (not named) was announced in 2013. The distinctions between the serotypes are based on their antigenicity. Dengue is one of the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral diseases in the world. In the last 50 years, the incidence of dengue infection has increased almost 30-fold with increasing geographic expansion to new countries and, in the present decade, from urban to rural settings. This increasing rate of incidence has led to the development of various diagnostic and treatment modalities for the different serotypes of dengue virus. Numerous direct methods like Virus isolation, Genome detection, NS (Nonstructural protein) 1 detection, etc. and certain direct methods like Serology IgM, Serology IgG are routinely used for in the laboratories for detection of dengue infection. The time for detection ranges from 30 minutes as in IgM rapid test to 1-2 weeks as in Viral isolation and Serotype identification. Clinical management of dengue depends on the condition of the patient, and it ranges from management at home to immediate admission to the hospital. This review highlights the current and future trends in the diagnosis along with the various treatment options available for dengue.

Keywords: Dengue Fever, ELISA, IgM/IgG, Antigen NS1.

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