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Farah Naaz*, Adnan Mastan, Mohd Abid and Noman Khan


Background: The concept of Mizaj (Temperament) is unique to Unani system of Medicine and the whole system is based on these fundamentals of Mizaj. The Hippocrates (460-370BC), father of Medicine was the first to propose the principles of Mizaj (temperament). The theory of Mizaj states that the individual temperament (Mizaj) of a person is fixed and cannot be changed. Just as a fingerprint cannot be changed, so our fundamental temperament (Mizaj) cannot be changed. Each individual may have their own likes, dislikes, interests and skills. These all characteristics make up the unique disposition or temperament (Mizaj). People of one type of mizaj (temperament) may be prone to a particular group of diseases in different phases of their life. Hippocrates rightly said, “It is more important to know what sort of person has a disease, than to know what sort of disease a person has”. A person‟s temperament (Mizaj) has a direct influence on the state of health and inclination towards illnesses. Unani physicians have classified the mizaj (temperament) of an individual into four types namely Damvi (sanguine), Balghami (phlegmatic), Safravi (bilious) and Saudavi (melancholic). Thus, knowledge of temperament can help in planning a diet that is optimum for an individual and physical activities that promote a happy, healthy and productive lifestyle enabling people to live in harmony with self and world around them. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a major source of short and long-term morbidity amongst the women in reproductive age group, perhaps also the most important avoidable cause of female tubal factor infertility. Objectives: This study tried to assess and establish the temperament (Mizaj) of patients of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. The consideration of this study had the potential to prevent and treat Pelvic Inflammatory Disease based on classical theory of temperament (Mizaj). An early and accurate diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is of paramount importance for the effective management of the acute illness and for the prevention of long-term sequelae. Material & Methods: The study was carried out at A& U Tibbia College, Karol Bagh, New Delhi-05. 60 subjects with confirmed clinical diagnosis of PID complying inclusion and exclusion criteria‟s were included in the study. Mizaj (temperament) of the subjects was assessed by a standard questionnaire of temperament. Literature Review: All the renowned classical Unani textbooks were searched for the term “Warm-e-Rahm”, such as Kitab al-Hawi, Al-Qanoon fil-Tib, Al-Moalijat-i Buqratiya, Zakhira Khwarzam Shahi, Kitab al-Mukhtarat-fit-Tibb, Kitab al-Taisir, Tarjuma Shara Asbab, etc. The etiology, sign and symptoms and management were carefully studied and recorded. Modern medicine texts such as Dutta‟s Textbook of Gynecology, Shaw‟s Textbook of Gynaecology, etc were also searched for references. Beside this, related articles from authentic journals in PubMed and Google Scholar were also explored. Results: 60 subjects were enrolled for the study. The maximum number of subjects was found in 25-29 years age group. Highest number of subjects was of balghami mizaj (phlegmatic temperament) (n=30) followed by saudawi (melancholic temperament) (n=14). 10 patient of damvi (sanguine temperament) and 6 patients of safrawi (bilious temperament) were found. Conclusion: In light of this study, it can be concluded that patients with damvi (sanguine) and safravi (bilious) mizaj are prone to develop acute form of PID and with subsequent shift of acute inflammation towards mild and chronic grade; the mizaj (temperament) also shows predominance of balghami (phlegmatic) and saudaviyat (melancholic) constitution. So the temperament of a patient may be considered as an important factor in the pathogenesis of PID.

Keywords: Pelvic inflammatory disease, mizaj, temperament, damvi, balghami, safravi and saudavi mizaj.

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