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Ritu Kushwaha, Brijesh K. Mishra, Alok Raghav and F. K. Pandey,*


In today’s scenario loss of crops from fungal plant diseases is resulting in hunger and starvation, especially in developing countries like India where access to disease-control methods is limited and annual losses of 30 to 50 percent are common for major crops. Synthetic chemical used as a fungicide these days poses a great threat to our ecosystem and environment. The alternative of these fungicides are biological controls and natural products which are cheaper and are more environment friendly and will not contaminate the food web as compared to fungicide. Rhizoctonia solani, fungus is a pathogen of agricultural crops in the plant family Solanaceae that includes eggplant, pepper, potato and tomato. The most abundant source of protein comes from the crop of common bean worldwide which is also a major part of human consumption and also known for improving the soil fertility through nitrogen fixation. Similarly other important crops such as soyabean, peanut, and corn are infected by Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, which are among the most important fungal pathogens. Rhizoctonia solani has a broad host range and little effective resistance and is an important necrotrophic pathogen. Rhizoctonia solani, primarily attacks below ground plant parts such as the seeds, hypocotyls, and roots, but is also capable of infecting above ground plant parts (e.g. pods, fruits, leaves and stems). The most common symptom of Rhizoctonia disease is referred to as "damping-off" characterized by non germination of severely infected seed. Another fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. a necrotrophic soilborne fungus causes charcoal rot infecting about 500 plants. The fungus can infect the root and lower stem of over 500 plant species and is widely distributed.[1-14] M. phaseolina causes disease on soyabean, peanut, and corn. In peanut, it causes seed and seedling rots, wilt, root and stem rots, leaf spot, and rotting of developing pods and seed. Charcoal rot on soybean leads to early maturation, chlorosis and incomplete pod filling. While in corn the fungus causes a stalk rot during hot, dry conditions. Continuous use of chemical fungicide may result in extensive deterioration of soil components and other environmental problems.[15-22] Effects of papaya extrudes as a fungicide has never been studied. Three different chemicals (urea, papaya milk and minthol) were tested against the growth of these two pathogens out of which Papaya milk and Urea are used for the first time and it shows a great degree of antagonistic activity against R solani and M. phaseolina and is very cheap and environment friendly to use.

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