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Naseem Bano* and Girish Dhanraj Mali


Kidney stone is one of the most common urological disorders and one of the oldest diseases, which affects 10‑12% of the world population. Pathophysiology of the disease includes urine supersaturation which promotes nucleation and aggregation of crystal then crystal retention occurs in the epithelium of urinary tract leads formation and growth of stone. Lithiasis is a term used for formation of stone in the urinary tract system. Stone can be in range from “A grain of sand to a pearl” with some “as big as golf balls”. Calcium containing calculi are the most common comprising about 80% of all urinary calculi, rest 20% are of other types. There are some promoters and inhibitors which have most important roll in the formation of calculi. They can cause excruciating pain or no symptoms at all. To determination of the presence of kidney stones, various imaging techniques were used now a day. Which is useful for proper knowledge about the location and type of calculi.

Keywords: Kidney stone, Lithiasis, Pathophysiology, calculi.

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