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World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (WJPR) will give best paper award in every issue in the form of money along with certificate to promote research activity of scholar.
            Best Paper Award :
Dr. Muhammad Baqir MR Fakhrildin
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*Ab. Rashid Wani


All life forms have an absolute requirement for metals, as metals play critical roles in fundamental processes, including osmotic regulation, catalysis, metabolism, biomineralization and signaling. Group I and II metals (alkali and alkaline earth metals such as sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) are highly abundant in most biological organisms. Gradients of group I and II metals across membranes represent a classical way to store potential energy and these ions play roles in osmotic regulation, generation of action potentials and signaling. Transition metals that are generally recognized as playing critical roles in biology include iron, zinc, copper, manganese, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, chromium and vanadium.[1] These elements are often referred to as trace elements because they are present at much lower levels than the group I and II metals, although it is important to note that iron and zinc are often found in substantial amounts and hence their characterization as trace elements is sometimes misleading. Transition metal abundance and usage differs notably across different superkingdoms. For example, eukaryotes devote a higher proportion of their proteome to binding zinc than bacteria or archaea, but the reverse is true for iron, manganese and cobalt.2 A growing number of comparative genomics studies suggest that iron and zinc are widely used in biology, whereas other metals such as copper, molybdenum, tungsten, nickel, and cobalt are used more sporadically across groups of organisms. To add an additional level of complexity, a recent proteomics study suggested the microbial metallome, that is, the full distribution of metals used by an organism, is largely uncharacterized and there may be additional uses of transition metals, such as cadmium, uranium, arsenic and lead not commonly recognized as being beneficial biometals.

Keywords: Transition metal, Biomineralization, Sensors, Florescent.

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