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Abstract

CURRENT ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS AND STRATEGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

Maya Datt Joshi*, Sonali Gangwar and Durg Vijay Rai

ABSTRACT

A constant increase in the features of metabolic syndrome leading to serious complications including neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy has resulted in worldwide epidemic of Type 2 diabetes mellitus or insulin resistance. Most of the available antidiabetic drugs were developed in the absence of defined molecular targets or a clear understanding of disease pathogenesis. Moreover, the available drugs suffer from one or the other side effects. Emerging knowledge of key physiologic mechanisms related to probable causes of hepatic and muscle insulin resistance on glucose metabolism has led to a number of new emerging molecular drug targets. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major contributor of deaths in India and worldwide, there is a urgent need to develop new drugs that will be helpful to diminish the overall diabetic load of world population. The present review provides the description of existing antidiabetic drugs and their respective molecular targets. There is a information regarding the antidiabetic targets that include receptors and enzymes that enhance glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, suppress hepatic glucose production, increase skeletal muscle glucose transport and utilization, increase insulin sensitivity and intracellular insulin signaling with reduction in circulating and intracellular lipids. It also emphasizes on the need for developing novel antidiabetic drugs having lower side effects and more efficacy.

Keywords: antidiabetic drugs, targets, type 2 diabetes mellitus, etc.


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