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Abstract

FLOURIDE IN GROUND WATER SOURCES OF SARDARSHAHAR CITY OF CHURU DISTRICT IN THE THAR DESERT OF RAJASTHAN

Gayatri Khatri* and C. K. Bahura

ABSTRACT

Groundwater is the major source of fresh water on the earth. Fluoride in groundwater has known to contaminate the water sources globally. Rajasthan, one of the states in the Northern part of India, has known to have excessive fluoride content in groundwater sources. Fluoride at optimal level decreases the incidence of dental caries and is also necessary for maintaining the integrity of oral tissues but at the same time when taken in excess during development stages can cause adverse effects like dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, mottling of teeth, osteoporosis etc. Ground water contains fluoride ions dissolved from geological formations. Therefore, the concentration of fluoride should be within permissible limit as prescribed by various Organizations such as WHO, ICMR and BIS. Hence, it becomes very important to analyze the fluoride in the water of tube-wells used for drinking purpose. Hence, approximately 10 ground/drinking water sources (tube wells i.e. sampling stations) of Sardar Shahar tehsil of Churu (district of Rajasthan) is been examined for the evidence of fluoride in 2012. Out of these eight water sources (80%) showed the presence of excess fluoride beyond permissible limits with varying ranges. Fluoride content ranged from 0.72 ppm to 5.1 ppm at different sampling stations or tube wells (average of all the tube wells being 3.4 ppm). In fluoride containing water pH varied between 7.2 to 8.9, alkalinity between 250 to 540, total hardness between 130 to 320 ppm , Ca+2 between 30 to 110 ppm , Cl-1 between 230 to 850 ppm , NO3 between 5 to 70 mg/L, all of these were within limits except TDS as it varied between 1280 to 3350.

Keywords: Ground water. Fluoride analysis. Sardar Shahar Tehsil. Rajasthan.


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