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Anjum A., Ahmed S., Waris A.* and Akhtar N.


Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders with complications that include sightthreatening diabetic retinopathy, also known as diabetic eye disease. To implement an effective prevention the risk factors of diabetic retinopathy are essential to understand. This research aims to examine the association between the commonest complications of diabetes namely Diabetic retinopathy and its risk factors. Studies show there is a poor glycemic control in patients of diabetic retinopathy as reflected by a raised glycated hemoglobin, longer standing diabetes, and use of injectable insulin for treatment. Among other risk factors, hypertension has association with prevalence and progression of diabetic retinopathy whereas the effects are not so well established for cholesterol, and lipid control, inflammatory markers, sleep-disordered breathing, obesity and exercise. Myopia was a protective factor for the development of diabetic retinopathy. Several genetic polymorphisms are also associated with an increased risk for development of diabetic retinopathy.

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, Hypertension, Cholesterol, Exercise, Obesity, Sleepdisordered breathing, Anemia, Sex Hormones.

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