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Dr. Niraj*, Dr. Rashmi Tripathi, Suman Kumari, Sharon Preet Saggu, Mayank Jain, Anshul Sharma


According to the World Health Assembly report, about 1.5 billion persons in more than 110 countries are threatened with thyroid disorders. World Health Organization (WHO) estimation also indicates that about 200 million people have goiter. The thyroid’s job is to make thyroid hormones, which are secreted into the blood and then carried to every tissue in the body. Thyroid hormone helps the body use energy, stay warm and keep the brain, heart, muscles, and other organs working as they should. The thyroid gland is the first of the body's endocrine glands to develop, on approximately the 24th day or 3-4 weeks of gestation, but at around 10-12 weeks the thyroid begins to function on its own. Thyroid hormones are involved in regulation of vital body function. In general normal development, growth and reproduction cannot occur without them. Thyroid function disorders can generally be grouped into two classes, namely hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. The proper treatment of hyper- and hypothyroidism depends on recognition of the signs and symptoms of the disease and determination of the aetiology. Thyroid hormones, the only known iodine-containing compounds with biological activity, have two important functions. In developing animals and human beings, they are crucial determinants of normal development, especially in the central nervous system (CNS). The thyroid is responsible for production and secretion of the thyroxin (T4) and tri iodothyronine (T3) hormones and calcitonin throughout the body. Thyroid hormones is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. The hypothalamus secretes thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in a tropic fashion that activates the anterior pituitary to secrete thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH targets the thyroid and elevates thyroid hormone production. When adequate thyroid hormones are produced and secreted, the anterior pituitary stops secreting TSH via a negative feedback Mechanism.

Keywords: Thyroid, Hyperthyroid, Hypothyroid, Thyroid in pregnancy, Thyroid treatment.

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