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Steffy P. Raju, *Renuka R. and Dr. Elessy Abraham


Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders with a number of etiologies characterized by hyperglycemia along with impairment of carbohydrate, fat and proteins metabolism. It can occur due to an imbalance of insulin secretion, insulin action or both.[1] Hyperglycemia in diabetes is associated with micro vascular disturbances and dysfunction of eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart together with an increased risk of macro vascular disease. The criteria of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus are defined by guideline of by American Diabetes Association (ADA).[3] Diabetes mellitus management is associated with the episodes of hypoglycemia. The hypoglycemia complications are mainly associated in elderly and also in some cases of type I diabetes subjects. Furthermore, prolonged insulin deficiency and longer disease duration increase the risk of hypoglycemia in type II diabetes mellitus.[2] Diabetes and its associated complications are the possible cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This calls for a firm action in part of its therapeutic potential. To check the increased episodes of diabetes and its associated complications, cost-effective and minimal tedious interventions are needed for its efficient management and to slow down its rate of prevalence.[3] The epidemiological analysis of diabetes mellitus episodes enables the researchers to develop the smart insulin. Smart insulin is the best option to minimize the episodes of hypoglycemia and diabetes associated complications. Besides associated micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications with diabetes, hypoglycemia is among the most important complication in patients relying on insulin action. It is commonly prevalent in elderly population, type I diabetic subjects and with those having co-morbidities. Subsequent episodes of hypoglycemia can also lead to deaths. Smart insulin is also known as glucose-responsive insulin that is being designed on the situation and need.[4] It can automatically turns on when the glucose level reaches to maximum and, it can turn off when glucose level reaches to normal. This insulin could make a remarkable history and ensure for a perfect glycemic control throughout the life span.[3] The working of smart insulin depends on the principle of sensing of glucose. When the concentration of glucose is low a signal goes to some binding element having a biodegradable material that attached to insulin molecules and it can prohibit its action. When the concentration of glucose is high the binding element attached to insulin detached and enables the insulin to perform its function.[4]

Keywords: Carbohydrate, fat and proteins metabolism

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