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Abstract

PREANASTHETICS: A REVIEW ON CURRENT PRACTICE

Nandan H. N.*, Dr. Suresha B. S., Monisha M. N., Mazhar Anwar C.,
Mohammed Ismail and Uthkarsha Vinesh

ABSTRACT

The practice of preanaesthetic medication embarked upon soon after ether and chloroform were introduced as general anesthetics in the middle of the 19th century. Premedication was originally introduced to facilitate induction of anaesthesia with agents, such as chloroform and ether, that are irritant and produce copious amounts of secretions. Preanaesthetic medications are a group of drugs administered before anaesthesia to make it more pleasant and safe. The major objectives of preanaesthetic medication are to decrease the stress response with preservation of hemodynamic parameters, facilitate anaesthesia induction and produce amnesia. Major concerns during surgical procedures include anxiety among patients, post-operative pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting and the risk of aspiration pneumonitis. Preanaesthetic medicines are generally given to avoid the adverse events associated with general anaesthesia, facilitate surgery and reduce the risk of post-operative complications. The preoperative preparation of a patient for anaesthesia and surgery includes both psychologic and pharmacologic components. The psychologic aspect of preoperative preparation is provided by the anaesthesiologist’s visit and interview. In addition, a wide spectrum of pharmacologic agents[e.g., barbiturates, benzodiazepines, major tranquilizers, opioid (narcotic) analgesics, anticholinergics, histamine H2-blockers, gastrokinetic drugs] are administered to facilitate the process of preoperative preparation. The preanaesthetic medication correlates with various outcomes like patient’s clinical status, the type and duration of operation, duration of post-operative recovery, post-operative analgesia requirement and hospital stay. Our study gives an insight to the various premedications used before anaesthesia to minimize its side effects.

Keywords: Preanaesthetics, Anaesthesia, Psychologic aspect, Anaesthesiologist’s, Side effects, Hemodynamic parameters.


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