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Dirgha Raj Joshi* and Nisha Adhikari


A proper selection of acid and base plays pivotal role in organic synthesis. The rate of reaction, desired product, yield, handling easiness, stability, solubility, and many more factors depends on acids and bases what we are using. Both the acid and base can be categorized in two classes; organic (eg. Acid- Acetic acid, Formic acid, Ascorbic acid etc., Base- DMAP, DBU, Triethylamine, n-Butyllithium etc.) and inorganic (Acid- Boric acid, Sulfuric acid, Hydrochloric acid, Phosphoric acid etc., Base- Sodium hydroxide, Ammonium hydroxide, Calcium carbonate, Sodium amide etc.). Furthermore, the Lewis acid (eg. Aluminium bromide, Boron trifluoride, Tin (IV) chloride etc.), and Phosphazene base (eg. P1-t-Bu, P2-t-Bu, P4-t-Bu, P1-t-Oct, P2-F, BTPP, BEMP etc.) are also more popular classes. Based on the molecular structure we may need weak, mild, strong or strongest acid and base. This concise review provides updated information about acids and bases commonly used in organic synthesis.

Keywords: Acid, base, organic synthesis, Phosphazene, Lewis acid, reaction.

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