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Abstract

CRISPR GENOME EDITING

Ramya P. R. and Varuna P. Panicker*

Abstract

CRISPR genome editing is a revolutionary technique which made major changes in biological science. It is a part of prokaryotic immune system. When prokaryotes attacked by viruses, they resist the virus with the adaptive immunity of CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Inter Spaced Palindrome Repeats). Scientists are using this technology for genome editing in higher life forms. We can modify any part of genome of any species without harming other genome by using this technology. Cas9 is an endonuclease enzyme in this genome editing technique which is responsible for cutting DNA at target site with high accuracy and precision. In disease diagnosis and treatment this genome editing technique helps to study the function of genes to make the models of different diseases and to determine the possibilities of the diseases. It can even apply for producing embryos with desired gene. This resulted in ethical issues regarding misuse of this technology.

Keywords: CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Inter Spaced Palindromic Repeats), Cas9 (CRISPR associated protein), gRNA (guide RNA), Spacer DNA, CRISPR Locus.


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